A vineyard /ˈvinjərd/ ('wine farm' in South Africa) is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture.
A vineyard is often characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine.
A vineyard designated wine is a wine produced from the product of a single vineyard with that vineyard's name appearing on the wine label.
In the United States, the appearance of vineyards name on wine labels is a relatively recent phenomenon with one of the first vineyard designated premium wines in California being the 1966 vintage Heitz Martha's Vineyard Cabernet Sauvignon. Under US wine laws, if the name of vineyard appears on the label at least 95% of the grapes used to make the wine must come from that vineyard. 
"Estate Bottled" on a wine label means that 100% of the wine came from grapes grown on land owned or controlled by the winery, which must be located in a vinticular area. The winery must crush and ferment the grapes and finish, age, and bottle the wine in a continuous process on their premises. The winery and the vineyard must be in the same vinticular area.